nl en

Psychometrics and Structural Equation Modeling


Admission Requirements

Statistics and probability.


Many properties of individual subjects, such as extroversion, verbal intelligence, the quality of life after an eye operation, or the tendency to avoid taxes, cannot be measured directly. These attributes are latent and can only be gauged via the measurement of manifest variables which depend upon them.The course introduces psychometric models and methods that provide scores on latent variables, their meaning, reliability, validity, and the best way to obtain them in an efficient way. In addition structural equation models allow study their relations in a directed graph. There are three parts: I classical test theory, II modern test theory, III structural equation models.

Course objectives

Understand the mathematics of latent variable models and be able to derive some of their properties from basic assumptions. Being able to analyze data with latent variable models and interpret their outcomes. Some knowlege of reasons why models fail and how to deal with it. Report and present the results of these analyses in an appropriate manner.


You will find the timetables for all courses and degree programmes of Leiden University in the tool MyTimetable (login). Any teaching activities that you have sucessfully registered for in MyStudyMap will automatically be displayed in MyTimeTable. Any timetables that you add manually, will be saved and automatically displayed the next time you sign in.

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For more information, watch the video or go the the 'help-page' in MyTimetable. Please note: Joint Degree students Leiden/Delft have to merge their two different timetables into one. This video explains how to do this.

Mode of Instruction

Studying a textbook, following lectures and lab meetings, making exercises. Analyzing empirical data. This work may be done in small groups of two or three students. During practicals lecturers may be consulted.

Assessment Method

The final grade depends on an open-book written exam. Access to the exam depends on the successful execution of assignments, one for each of the three parts of the course. These assignments are completed and submitted no later than at the end of each part. Course credits will be obtained when the exam is graded by at least a 6. The assignments are reports on the analysis of test data with methods of each of the three parts.

Reading List

McDonald R. P. (1999). Test Theory: A Unified Treatment, London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Computer manuals (to be announced during the course).


From the academic year 2022-2023 on every student has to register for courses with the new enrollment tool MyStudyMap. There are two registration periods per year: registration for the fall semester opens in July and registration for the spring semester opens in December. Please see this page for more information.

Please note that it is compulsory to both preregister and confirm your participation for every exam and retake. Not being registered for a course means that you are not allowed to participate in the final exam of the course. Confirming your exam participation is possible until ten days before the exam.

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Prof.dr. H. Kelderman:
Dr. M.G.E. Verdam: