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Cyber Law


Admission requirements

None, but please note that this class is primarily based on European and not Dutch law. All lectures will be given in English.


This course will teach you how European law regulates information technologies (IT) and, particularly, the Internet. After an introduction into the regulation of global information and communication infrastructures and the Internet, the course will address a series of specific themes and issues. Themes may include:

  • The regulation of various digital environments & technologies

  • Fundamental rights like freedom of expression, privacy, data protection

  • State surveillance

  • Corporate surveillance

  • Mis- and disinformation online, platform regulation, and content moderation

  • The use of artificial intelligence and its regulation

Please note that attendance in this class is mandatory.

Course objectives

Objectives of the course

  • To provide insights into ways in which various areas of International and European law regulate information technologies and the Internet

  • To discuss new legal developments in International and European IT and Internet law

  • To thoroughly analyze a particular area of International and European IT and Internet law

Achievement levels
The following achievement levels apply with regard to the course:

  • To obtain in-depth knowledge about particular areas of International and European IT and Internet law

  • To critically review developments in International and European IT and Internet law

  • To provide a thorough written analysis of a particular legal area in International and European IT and Internet law


Check MyTimetable.

Mode of instruction

  • Number of (2 hour) lectures: 10

  • Names of lecturers: Dr. H.C. Lahmann, with the possibility of guest lecturers

  • Required preparation by students: Reading the obligatory study materials on Brightspace

  • Interactive lectures for which attendance is mandatory. Registration is required (in MyStudymap/Usis all interactive lectures are mentioned as working groups).

Assessment method

  • Written exam.

Submission procedures
Will be announced on Brightspace.

Regulation retake passed exams
In this course it is possible to retake an exam that has been passed (cf. art. and further of the Course and Examination Regulations). Students who have passed the exam may retake the final written assessment (test) of the course if they meet certain requirements. To retake a passed exam, students need to ask the Student Administration Office (OIC) for permission. For more information, go to 'course and exam enrollment' > 'permission for retaking a passed exam' on the student website.

Reading list

Obligatory course materials

Relevant information on this course, including many of the required study materials, is available on Brightspace. Students must have obtain access to the class textbook. A couple of copies are available in the Leiden Law Library. However, it is highly recommended that students purchase the class textbook. Online copies are not available for download.


  • The reading list will be made available via the Class Page on Brightspace.

  • Class Textbook: Andrew Murray’s Information Technology and the Law (5th Edition, scheduled to be published in June 2023). Please do not buy earlier editions. Information Technology Law is a fast-moving area and earlier editions will be out-of-date.

Course information guide:

  • See Brightspace


  • See Brightspace

Recommended course materials

  • See Brightspace


Registration for courses and exams takes place via MyStudymap. If you do not have access to MyStudymap (guest students), look here (under the Law-tab) for more information on the registration procedure in your situation.

When the maximum number of students have registered a waiting list will be opened at the secretariat. You should send an e-mail to



  • Institution: Meta Juridica / eLaw Center for Law and Digital Technologies

  • Division: eLaw@Leiden, Center for Law and Digital Technologies

  • Telephone number secretariat: +31 (0)71 527 8838

  • E-mail: