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International Arbitration


International Arbitration
Many international business disputes are submitted to arbitration. The course familiarises students with the role and function of international arbitration, including i) the selection of arbitrators, ii) the conduct of arbitration proceedings, iii) the organization of hearings, iv) and enforcement of arbitral awards.


Europa Institute Steenschuur 25 2311 ES Leiden Phone: 071-527 7760 Website: Sheena Bruce, Phone: +31 (0)71 527 7821

Mr. Nikos Lavranos - Course Coordinator

Course Objectives:
The primary objective of this course is to familiarize students with international arbitration. This is done through discussions on when and why arbitration is an appropriate method of dispute resolution, on the selection of an appropriate arbitration regime, and on how to draft an effective arbitration clause. Another objective of this course is to discuss arbitral procedure including, but not limited to, the method by which arbitrators are appointed, interim measures, witness testimony, and the use of experts.

Achievement levels:
The following achievement levels apply with regard to the course:
Knowledge and comprehension:

  • Understanding the differences between arbitration and other methods of dispute resolution

  • Studying the basic requirements for an effective arbitration clause and identifying categories of disputes which cannot be arbitrated

  • Analysing common procedural questions which arise in arbitral proceedings

  • Acquiring knowledge about the methods of enforcing awards and oversight over the arbitral process

  • Gaining insight into common problems with arbitration clauses and how these can be avoided. Students have an opportunity to apply these skills in an unmarked class assignment on drafting an arbitration clause

  • Using the knowledge and experience gained in the course in studying the issues raised by the mock arbitration

  • Using the knowledge and experience gained in the course to respond to essay questions on the final examination

  • Students are able to analyse the effectiveness of arbitral clauses, develop arguments on points of arbitral procedure, and comment on the method by which awards can be enforced

  • Students are able to discuss their views in the interactive lectures on the prescribed readings

  • Students are able to present their legal analysis and findings on a specific factual matrix in the mock arbitration

Mode of Instruction:
Students are expected to attend 12 interactive lectures during the course of 6 weeks. Two lectures near the end of the course will allow students to demonstrate their knowledge by taking part in a mock arbitration hearing.
Attendance of the scheduled course lectures is mandatory. No grade will be awarded to a student who has been absent without being excused by the lecturer.
Students must complete the assigned reading prior to the lecture. Students will be regularly called upon during the lecture to answer questions. Insofar as the course lectures are wholly or partly conducted through videoconference, the students are expected to have functional microphones and cameras.
The course outline and selected reading materials not accessible on the Internet or through the library of Leiden University will be made available on Brightspace.

Reading List:

1) Alan Redfern & Martin Hunter, with Nigel Blackaby & Constantine Partasides QC, Redfern and Hunter on International Arbitration Student Version (Sweet & Maxwell, 7th ed., 27 January 2023, Oxford University Press).
2) Selected reading materials and reference materials other than Redfern & Hunter will be made available on Brightspace.

Assessment Method(s):
10% Course participation. Students may be asked to (i) play a role in the mock arbitration through an oral presentation and/or (ii) complete a written assignment.
90% Three hour open-book final examination.
If the student receives less than a 6.0 overall, the student must retake an open-book exam which will replace both the grade of the exam and the participation grade.
The students may be assessed on the required reading, the lectures


  • Sheena Bruce, – Phone: +31 (0)71 527 7821

Currently these pages are being updated to reflect the courses for 2022 - 2023. Until these pages are fixed as per 1 September 2022 no rights can be claimed from the information which is currently contained within. Should there be any future changes of the Covid 19 virus which may impinge our teaching and assessment, these could necessitate modification of the course descriptions after 1 September. This will only happen in the event of strict necessity and the interests of the students will be taken into account. Should there be a need for any change during the course, this will be informed to all students on a timely basis. Modifications after 1 September 2022 may only be done with the approval and consent of the Faculty Board and Programme Director.