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Methods for monitoring instruction


NB Language spoken in course is Dutch unless English-speaking students participate




This course is designed to help students develop the knowledge and skills necessary to use data to build effective educational and behavioral programs for students with learning and behavioral difficulties. The course begins with a description of what a problem-solving approach to learning and behavior is, and then explores factors that led to the development of the problem-solving approach. A specific problem-solving model is described, Response to Intervention. The emphasis of the course then turns to development of the skills and techniques needed to implement a problem-solving approach, with a specific focus on the collection and interpretation of data to evaluate the effects of problems-solving efforts. Specific emphasis is placed on problem identification and definition, and evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions. Development of interventions is emphasized in a subsequent course.


By the end of the course, students will:

  • Describe what a problem-solving approach is, and describe the steps to problem solving.

  • Discuss factors leading to the development of a problem-solving approach.

  • Describe a specific problem-solving model, Response to Intervention.

  • Demonstrate mastery of skills necessary to implement a problem-solving model.

  • Implement the steps to a problem-solving approach for one student, including problem identification and definition, formulation of an intervention plan, and development of measurement procedures to evaluate the effectiveness of that plan.

  • Prepare a case report and present it in class.






  • 6 essay questions (take-home assignments) throughout the course (50%)

  • a project (50%)


Blackbord will be used.


  • Brown-Chidsey, R. (2007). Assessment for intervention: A problem-solving approach. New York: Guilford.

  • Hosp, M.K., Hosp, J.L., & Howell, K.W. (2007). The ABCs of CBM: A practical guide to Curriculum-Based Measurement. New York: Guilford.

  • Deno, S.L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52, 219-232.

  • Fuchs, L.S., & Deno, S.L. (1991). Paradigmatic distinctions between instructionally relevant measurement models. Exceptional Children, 57, 488-500.

  • Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P.L., & Young, C.L. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18, 157-171.

  • Vaughn, S., & Fuchs, L.S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: The promise and potential problems. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 137-146.


Exchange and Study Abroad students, please see the Study in Leiden website for information on how to apply.

Please note that separate uSis registration is mandatory for lectures, seminars, exam and re-exam.

  • Registration for the lectures of the course is possible as of two months through one week before the first lecture at the latest;

  • Registration for the seminars of the course is possible as of two months through one week before the first lecture at the latest;

  • Registration for the exam is possible as of two months through one week before the exam at the latest;

  • Registration for the re-exam is possible as of two months through one week before the re-exam at the latest.

Students who don’t register cannot attend classes or take the (re)exam.


During this course professor Espin holds offices one hour immediately after classes. She can also be reached by email.