General knowledge of the English language, biology, mathematics, physics, and chemistry as required for students to be accepted for Biomedical Sciences.
The course Physiology, Basic Concepts, consists of five themes.
Theme 1. Cardiovascular System – Heart – Electrical Function*
anatomy of the heart with emphasis on its electrical properties
resting and action potential of the cardiac myocyte
impulse formation and conduction in the heart
genesis of the electrocardiogram (ECG)
ECG leads, lead systems and vectorcardiogram
the normal electrocardiogram (with practical)
genesis of cardiac arrhythmias (with patient demonstration)
Theme 2. Cardiovascular System – Heart – Mechanical Function*
anatomy of the heart with emphasis on its mechanical function
contraction mechanism of the cardiac myocyte
characterization of pump function (with working group)
Theme 3. Cardiovascular System – Circulation*
macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the circulation (with practical)
physical concepts (with working group)
arteries – capillaries – veins
neural control of the circulation
humoral control of the circulation and autoregulation
exercise and orthostasis (with patient demonstration)
physiology of heart failure (with patient demonstration)
Theme 4. Respiratory System*
anatomy of the lungs, with practical
gas transport in the lungs and in blood, with practical
control of breathing, with practical and work group
Theme 5. Kidneys*
anatomy of the kidneys, with practical
assessment of renal clearance and blood flow
regulation of glomular filtration rate and renal blood flow
tubular transport systems and functions with focus on sodium, chloride, water, urea and glucose
countercurrent multiplication, urine dilution an concentration with work group
After having followed this course, the student can:
describe and define the structure and functions of the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system and the kidneys;
relate the functions of these organs/organ-systems to the specific anatomical, mechanical and (with regard to the heart) electrical properties;
illustrate by clinical examples how several pathophysiologic conditions of these organs/organ-systems can be viewed from basic physiological principles.
Mode of instruction
Lectures (about 30), for every 2-3 lectures an interactive seminar, 6 practicals, 3 working groups, 3 patient demonstrations, rehearsal exams.
Multiple choice exam, taken in two sessions (Part 1: Cardiovascular System; Part 2: Respiratory System & Kidneys).
Moore KL et al, 2006 (5th Edition): Clinically oriented anatomy
Ross MH et al, 2006 (5th Edition): Histology, a text and atlas
Boron WF &; Boulpaep EL, 2009 : Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach Second Edition,
Klabunde RE, 2005 (1st Edition): Cardiovascular physiology concepts
Malmivuo J & Plonsey R, 1993-2005: Bioelectromagnetism (on internet: http://www.bem.fi/book/index.htm).
Information for exchange students
This module is part of an English taught semester of the bachelor’s programme in Biomedical Sciences at Leiden University Medical Center. Combining biomedical modules with modules from other programmes in Leiden is difficult or impossible due to different scheduling schemes. Exchange students with sufficient relevant background knowledge in biology/biomedicine are therefore encouraged and advised to choose the entire module package indicated below. This semester starts in week 36 and finishes at the end of week 3 of the following calendar year.
Immunology (BW), 8 EC
Pathogen-Host Interactions part 2, 3 EC
Infection and Immunity in Practice, 3 EC
Physiology, Basic Concepts, 8 EC
Physiology, Advanced Concepts, 3 EC
Communication in Science for Exchange students, 1 EC