The course “The Grammar of Georgian – Verb” is a course for MA students, intended for non-native speakers of Georgian.
Georgian is one of the world’s oldest languages. It is very important and interesting from a linguistic point of view, as well as from cultural and anthropological points of view.
Some general issues of the modern Georgian verb will be analyzed, such as:
1. Subject person and number,
2. Object Person and number,
3. System of the Georgian Verb – Series and screeves,
4. Conjugation system of the modern Georgian language:
4.1. I first conjugation,
4.2. II conjugation
4.3. III Conjugation,
4.4. IV Conjugation.
And as the course is intended as an introduction to Georgian verb, practical exercises will be presented as well.
The objectives of the course “The Grammar of Georgian – Verb” are:
- To provide students with a general knowledge of Georgian verb.
- To develop students’ necessary insights for analyzing Georgian verb data.
- To make students practically use their Georgian speaking skills
The course starts on Monday 31st of October. It takes place twice a week.
On Monday and Friday.
Mode of instruction
Total: 280 hours (10 EC)
Lectures: 6 x 4 = 24 hours
Examinations: 2 × 2 = 4 hours
Homework: 112 hours
Final paper: 140 hours
2 written examinations, closed-ended and open-ended questions (25% each), the first in the middle and the second at the end, and a paper of 5000 words (50%).
Blackboard will be used for:
• providing study materials
Compulsory readings: Howard I. Aronson, Georgian Reading Grammar, Slavica Publishers, Inc. 2nd edition 1990, for pdf version of this book see
George Hewitt, Georgian: A Learner’s Grammar (Routledge Essential Grammars) 2nd edition,2005, for pdf version of this book see
Coordinator of Studies Drs. T. Bouma
Administrations Office: van Wijkplaats
Remarks /Course outline
1. Conjugation. Subject person and number. First conjugation. Present, future, imperfect and conditional. Nominal System Nominative and Dative. Wordbuilding, Verbal Nauns.
2. Second conjugation. The endings of the future and present screeves of II conjugation verbs. II conjugation in d (დ) (დონიანი ვნებითი). II conjugation in i (ი) (ინიანი ვნებითი). Irregularities. Verbs in -am. Verbs in -av. Verbs in -eb. Verbs in -ob. Conditional and imperfect of the verb of II conjugation. The verb to be.
3. Series. Conjunctive (function and formation). Verb of motion.
4. Regular verbs. Aorist series. Ergative. Aorist, Aorist of regular verbs. Second conjugation in i. Second conjugation in d. Aorist of Irregular verbs. Aorist/Imperfect of the verb to be. Aorist of the verb to go.
5. Optative of regular verbs. Functions of Optative. Imperative. Negation.
6. Object Markers. Rules for the object markers. Indirect object markers with I conjugation verbs. The u-series with indirect object markers. Meaning of indirect objects. H series of indirect object markers. Absolute and relative verbs. Relative forms of the second conjugation in -d. Meaning of relative second conjugation forms. The irregular verb მიცემა ‘to give sthg. s.o.’
7. Third conjugation. Formation of III conjugation screeves. Verbal nouns of III conjugation verbs. Relative forms of third conjugation verbs. Wordbuilding: Derived III conjugation forms and derivatives of III conjugation verbs. Irregular verb ‘say’.
8. Irregularities in conjugation. Irregularities I conjugation verbs. Irregularities in II conjugation verbs. Verbs denoting position. Irregular verb იცის ‘he/she knows’ Personal pronouns.
9. Perfect series of I and III conjugation verbs. The present perfect tense. The pluperfect with third person direct object or without direct object. Perfect series with direct object in the first and second person. Pluperfect series with direct object in the first and second person. Present perfect. Pluperfect. Summary of case markings for I and III conjugation verbs.
10. The perfect participle. Perfect series of II conjugation verbs. Periphrastic passive. Causative of I conjugation verbs. Wordbuilding: Participles. The present (active) participle. The future (passive) participle. The negative participle. Perfect participle in na-.
11. IV conjugation. Expression of ‘can’ in Georgian. Have plus future participle. Wordbuilding: Verb forms related to IV conjugation verbs. Summary chart of subject and object cases, summary of vocabulary entry forms for verbs.
12. Reflexive indirect objects. The superessives. Passive of state. The Resultative. Functions of preradical vowels.
13. Peculiarities in the verbal system. Semantic peculiarities: Verbs of politeness. Personal and non-personal verbs. Singular and plural verbs. Conjugation and voice.
14. Formal peculiarities. Suppletion. Verbs conjugated with forms of არის / ყოფნა ‘be’. Verbs with ending -a. II conjugation forms of root verbs in -ev. Irregular verbs in -eb, -ob with inserted vowel in aorist. Compound verbs with -ყოფს. Present series in
ulob, ilob. Truncated Imperatives. Special functions of preverbs.