nl en

Politicians and civil servants


Admission requirements

This course is open to all students enrolled in the Master Public Administration (elective, max 25 students).


A good relationship between politics and the administration is essential for successful government. In practice the success of politicians is very much dependent on the quality of their staff. The relationship between a minister and his civil servants can make or break a minister’s future and is a key factor in success or failure of Government. There are many potential tensions between the two. The civil service is supposed to give frank and fearless advice, which can sometimes be perceived as not convenient. Civil servants have to provide state of the art information and maintain strict neutrality in preparing and executing policy. Politicians on their part want to achieve political and electoral successes, and are therefore very much focused on the media. The horizon of politicians differs from the horizon of civil servants. Also their basic values are different. Politicians sometimes express as their feeling that civil servants have too much power and are not willing to respond quickly to their wishes or to the demands of society, when it comes to structural changes but also in operational cases. In the eyes of politicians civil servants lack, it is said, enough sensitivity for the daily political challenges and for the need to respond as fast as possible. Politicians also feel uncomfortable about the monopoly of civil servants as far as information or relevant networks in society and among stakeholders are concerned. Civil servants are sceptical about the focus on the very short term and the eagerness of politicians for prompt and immediate action.

The course explores this dynamic but also delicate relationship. The emphasis is very much on the working of government in practice, illustrated by cases from the Netherlands and other countries. Failures and blunders of Government are a central theme in the course. Comparison between various countries about the way politicians and civil servants co-operate is part of the course. There will be ample opportunity to meet several key players, e.g. politicians, civil servants, journalists and lobbyists. A visit to a Government building or a stroll through the Government area and a visit to the Nieuwspoort Press Centre to discuss with journalists and/or politicians are part of the course.

Learning objectives

At the end of the course students should have attained:

  • A global awareness of the relationship between politicians and civil servants, including the everyday tensions, the conflicts and the instruments to solve these conflicts

  • Analytical skills for analysing of the way government works in practice

  • An introduction in the art of being a good civil servants, including skills to write convincingly and make adequate presentations to politicians

  • The ability to strategically advice politicians and civil servants on solutions for problems that exist in practice

  • A practical understanding of the personalities involved: their behaviour, their critical success factors, their professionalism, their tricks

  • A thorough understanding of the differences between political systems in a number of relevant countries


On the Public Administration front page of the E-guide you will find links to the website and timetables, uSis and Blackboard.

Mode of instruction

The basis of the course is a number of presentations about different topical issues related to the relationship between politicians and civil servants. In several lectures, experienced people from the practice of government participate. Actual case-studies about people, conflicts, failures, blunders and also developments are part of the course. One or more visits to relevant places and discussions with relevant politico-administrative stakeholders are included. Students are required to participate energetically in the discussions and also to prepare presentations. Students have to prepare a final paper and to present this paper in front of a panel.

Course Load

140 hours total:

  • Lectures (partly invited lecturers, including presentations): 7× 3 hours.

  • Self-study: 113 hours (including reading / research for the paper)

  • Site visits: 6 hours

Assessment method

The final grade is the weighted average of:

  • Individual paper: 70%

  • Written assignment 1: 10%

  • Written assignment 2: 20%

  • Presentation of final paper: pass/fail

You can find more information about assessments and the timetable exams on the website.
Details for submitting papers (deadlines) are posted on Blackboard.
On the Public Administration front page of the E-guide you will find links to the website, uSis and Blackboard.

Students will be permitted to resit an examination if they have a mark lower than 5.5 or with permission of the Board of Examiners.


The Blackboard page will be available at the latest 2 weeks before the start of the course. All course materials will be communicated through blackboard.


  • Roel Bekker, Liaisons dangereuses, Inaugural Lecture University of Leiden, 2009 (English version)

  • Paul ‘t Hart, Anchrit Wille, Ministers and top officials in the Dutch core executive: living together, growing apart?, Public Administration Vol. 84, no. 1, 2006 (121-146)

  • Patrick Weller, Australia’s Mandarins, Allen & Unwin 2001

  • Anthony King, Ivor Crewe, The Blunders of our Governments, London 2013

  • Peter H. Schuck, Why Government Fails So Often, Princeton 2014

  • Mark Bovens, Paul ’t Hart, Inderstanding policy fiascoes, New Brunswick 1996

  • Other recommended literature: to be announced during the course.


Use both uSis and Blackboard to register for every course.

Register for every course and workgroup via uSis. Some courses and workgroups have a limited number of participants, so register on time (before the course starts). In uSis you can access your personal schedule and view your results. Registration in uSis is possible from four weeks before the start of the course.

Also register for every course in Blackboard. Important information about the course is posted here.


Professor Roel Bekker