Music is energy. It is energy from a physical point of view, as the sounds that the music consists of are vibrations of air molecules. Music, however, is also energy in a different sense. Music has the power to move people, both physically and mentally. Music thus is a force, a sonic cultural expression that has an impact on listeners, performers, and composers alike.
In this course music as expressive force will be discussed. The following topics will be covered:
- Materiality of music;
- Music as motion;
- Musical creation as expressive activity;
- The expressivity of musical performances;
- Music as embodied experience;
- Music and emotions.
After completion of this course the student will be able to:
Recognise and analyse the expressive qualities of music;
Analyse how the expressive qualities of music function within different cultural contexts;
Reflect on the different views on musical expressivity and musical emotion;
Critically evaluate the methods of analysis that are used.
Academic year 2019-2020, first semester
Dates and times
Wednesdays, 15.15-17.00 hrs.
Lecture and seminar dates:
11 September 2019
18 September 2019
25 September 2019
2 October 2019
9 October 2019
16 October 2019
30 October 2019
6 November 2019
13 November 2019
20 November 2019
27 November 2019
4 December 2019
- 18 December 2019
The lectures/workgroups take place at Lipsius building, Cleveringaplaats 1, 2311 BD Leiden, room 307.
The exam on 18 December 2019 takes place in room 227 of the Lipsius building.
Mode of instruction
Lecture (even weeks)
Seminar (uneven weeks)
A group of students will host the seminars that take place on the uneven weeks. This group will begin by giving a 30-minute presentation, during which they will introduce five questions/problems/statements pertaining to the topic of last week’s lecture. Case studies should be used to clarify these points. Next, these points will be distributed among the other groups. Each group will discuss the point that was assigned to them, during 20-30 minutes. The members of the group that presented these points are supposed to mingle with the other groups and help them in their discussion. The remainder of the seminar will consist of a plenary discussion of these points, during which each group will present their response to the point that was presented to them. At the end of this course all presentations will be graded.
Total course load 5 EC x 28 hours= 140 hours
Lectures: 12 hours
Seminars: 12 hours
Preparation presentations: 12 hours
Study of compulsory literature: 30 hours
Preparation of sessions: 30 hours
Essay: 44 hours
Paper = 80%
Oral presentation = 20%
Students have the possibility to redo the paper if they have received grade lower than 5.5
inspection and feedback
The feedback on the paper will be sent to the students via email.
Blackboard will be used for:
The compulsory reading consists of the following papers, and can be downloaded once the students are connected to the Internet via the university’s wifi network or VPN:
1a. Cox, Christoph (2011). “Beyond Representation and Signification: Toward a Sonic Materialism.” Journal of Visual Culture 10: 145-161
1b. Krueger, Joel (2015). “Musicing, materiality, and the Emotional Niche.” Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education 14: 43-62
2a. Johnson, Mark L., and Steve Larson (2003). “‘Something in the Way She Moves:’ Metaphors of Musical Motion.” Metaphor and Symbol 18: 63-84
2b. Larson, Steve, and Leigh Vanhandel (2005). “Measuring Musical Forces.” Music Perception 23: 119-136
3a. Iazzetta, Fernando (2000). “Meaning in Musical Gesture.” In M.M. Wanderley and M. Battier (eds.), Trends in Gestural control of Music, pp. 259-268. Paris: Ircam
3b. Krogh, Mads (2018). “A Beat Is a Hybrid: Mediation, ANT and Music as Material Practice.” Contemporary Music Review 37: 529-553
4a. Bergeron, Vincent, and Dominic McIver Lopes (2009). “Hearing and Seeing Musical Expression.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78: 1-16
4b. Davidson, Jane W. (2007). “Qualitative Insights into the Use of Expressive Body Movement in Solo Piano Performance: A Case Study Approach.” Psychology of Music 35: 381-401
5a. Crossley, Nick (2015). “Music Worlds and Body Techniques: On the Embodiment of Musicking.” Cultural Sociology 9: 471-492
5b. Meelberg, Vincent (2009). “Sonic Strokes and Musical Gestures: The Difference between Musical Affect and Musical Emotion.” In Jukka Louhivuori, Tuomas Eerola, Suvi Saarikallio, Tommi Himberg, and Päivi-Sisko Eerola (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM): 324-327. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä
6a. Juslin, Patrik N., and Erik Lindström (2010). “Musical Expression of Emotions: Modelling Listeners’ Judgements of Composed and Performed Features.” Music Analysis 29: 334-364
6b. Pannese, Alessia, Marc-André Rappaz, and Didier Grandjean (2016). “Metaphor and Music Emotion: Ancient Views and Future Directions.” Consciousness and Cognition 44: 61-71
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For other courses in the domains of music and fine arts, please visit:
Overview of elective courses in music and fine arts
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