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Cyber Law


Admission requirements



This course will teach you how European law regulates information technologies (IT) and, particularly, the Internet. After an introduction into European IT an Internet Law, the course will address a series of specific themes and issues, which have been addressed by the European legislator and the European Court of Justice. Themes may include:

  • Regulating various digital environments and technologies; for example, the Internet of Things

  • Fundamental Rights like free expression, privacy, data protection and state surveillance

  • Algorithmic profiling, consumer protection, and e-commerce

  • Fake News, Platform Regulation, and Internet Service Provider (ISP) liability

  • Cybercrime and Security


Please note that attendance in this class is mandatory. A register will be taken at the beginning of class. There are no exceptions. No consideration will be given for conflicting classes. Students with unauthorized absences will not be permitted to sit the exam. In order for an absence to be authorized, the student must email the lecturer prior to the class starting.

Course objectives

Objectives of the course

  • To provide insights into ways in which various areas of European law regulate information technologies and the Internet

  • To discuss new legal developments in European IT and Internet law

  • To thoroughly analyze a particular area of European IT and Internet law

Achievement levels
The following achievement levels apply with regard to the course:

  • To obtain in-depth knowledge about particular areas of European IT and Internet law

  • To critically review developments in European IT and Internet law

  • To provide a thorough written analysis of a particular legal area in European IT and Internet law

  • To cooperate with fellow students on a written assignment


The timetable of this course can be found in uSis.

Mode of instruction


  • Number of (2 hour) lectures: 10

  • Names of lecturers: Dr. Mark Leiser, with the possibility of guest lecturers

  • Required preparation by students: Reading the obligatory study materials on Brightspace

  • Mandatory attendance. There will be no consideration for scheduling conflicts. Students who cannot attend should drop the course at the earliest opportunity and remove themselves from the class page.

Assessment method

Examination form(s)

The final grade for this course is made up of three components:

  • A written exam worth 30% of the final grade. This exam will take place on a laptop provided by the University. The course coordinator has no control over the date this exam is set.

  • A written group assignment worth 60% of the final grade. The paper is marked as a group and not on the basis of individual contributions. These groups will be randomly assigned by the course coordinator.

  • In addition to the group assignment, students must submit a individual review and reflection document. This is worth 10% of the student's final grade. The purpose of this report is to review and reflect on the group paper and the contributions of other group members. This form shall be made available via Brightspace.

In order to pass the class, students must achieve a weighted average of at least 5,5. Furthermore, students must score above a 5 in all three forms of assessment. If the student fails the exam or the group paper, a re-take is possible. A failed group paper will require a resubmission by all members of the group and a resubmission of the review and reflection document. The grades for the peer review, written exam, and group assignment remain valid only for the academic year in which they were obtained.

Submission procedures

Will be announced on Brightspace.

Areas to be tested within the exam

The exam will address the subjects discussed in the course. Students need to study the lectures as well as the required reading material on Brightspace. The exam is designed to test students accordingly.


Relevant information on this course, including many of the required study materials, is available on Brightspace. Students must have obtain access to the class textbook. A couple of copies are available in the Leiden Law Library. However, it is highly recommended that students purchase the class textbook. Online copies are not available for download.

Reading list

Obligatory course materials


  • The reading list will be made available via the Class Page on Brightspace.

  • Class Textbook: Andrew Murray’s Information Technology and the Law (4th Edition). Please do not buy earlier editions. Information Technology Law is a fast-moving area and earlier editions will be out-of-date.

Course information guide:

  • See Brightspace


  • See Brightspace

Recommended course materials

  • See Brightspace


Students have to register for courses and exams through uSis. When the maximum number of students have registered a waiting list will be opened at the secretariat. You should send an e-mail to[] ( Exchange students have priority and will be registered for the course first. Any remaining seats will be available for students from Leiden University and other Dutch Universities.

Contact information

  • Coordinator: Dr. Mark Leiser

  • Work address: KOG, Steenschuur 25, Leiden

  • E-mail:

  • Telephone number secretariat: +31 (0)71 527 8838


  • Institution: Meta Juridica / eLaw Center for Law and Digital Technologies

  • Division: eLaw@Leiden, Center for Law and Digital Technologies

  • Telephone number secretariat: +31 (0)71 527 8838

  • E-mail: