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Admission requirements


Avestan is an Indo-European language belonging to Old Iranian stage attested as the language of the Zoroastrian religious corpus (Avesta). It is attested in two variants, Old and Young Avestan. This course is an introduction to the synchronic and diachronic grammar of Young Avestan. Students are required to work on an additional topic such as the script and the orthography, Old Avestan, or a selected problem of historical grammar.

Course objectives

After this course, students will be able to:

  • analyze the basics of Avestan grammar;

  • read Young Avestan texts with a glossary;

  • interpret Avestan grammar in a synchronic and diachronic perspective.


The timetables are available through My Timetable.

Mode of instruction


Assessment method


Written examination and intermediate test


The intermediate test counts for 20%; the final exam for 60%; and the additional topic for 20%.
The resit counts for 80% (equivalent to the intermediate test and final exam together).


Resit: Students with a final grade of 5.0 or lower may take the resit.

Inspection and feedback

How and when an exam review will take place will be disclosed together with the publication of the exam results at the latest. If a student requests a review within 30 days after publication of the exam results, an exam review will have to be organised.

Reading list

No books need to be purchased beforehand.
The reference grammar that we will use is available online through your Leiden University library account:
Martínez, Javier and Michiel de Vaan. 2014. Introduction to Avestan (Brill Introductions to Indo-European Languages 1) Leiden: Brill.


Enrolment through My Studymap Universiteit Leiden is mandatory.

Registration Studeren à la carte en Contractonderwijs

Not applicable.


  • For substantive questions, contact the lecturer listed in the right information bar.

  • For questions about enrolment, admission, etc, contact the Education Administration Office: Reuvensplaats


All other information.