# Classical Electrodynamics

Course
2024-2025

Prior knowledge of Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMV), Analyse 2 (NA) en Analyse 3 NA.

## Description

The first-year course EMV led up to Maxwell's equations, and this is where CED starts. The course explores the solutions and consequences of Maxwell's equations. Before doing so, we first discuss how Maxwell's equations are modified in the presence of a polarizable medium. Next, electromagnetic wave propagation in vacuum, in polarizable media, and at the interface of the two are discussed. The classical laws of diffraction and refraction are found to follow naturally from the equations.
Electromagnetic waves are seen to carry energy and momentum, and we will formulate laws of conservation of energy and momentum.
In order to connect the waves to the sources of the waves (time-dependent charge and current distributions), Maxwell's equations are reformulated in terms of the potential and vector potential for the fields. The time delay involved in the effects of motion of the charges and currents before arriving at the point of observation is included by replacing time by retarded time in the potentials. Putting this together permits us to derive general expressions for the potentials of moving charges (the Liénard-Wiechert potentials), and from these we obtain general forms for the electric and magnetic fields.
Finally we use these expression to explore the important phenomenon of radiation emitted by accelerating charges (dipole radiation and synchrotron radiation).

## Course objectives

After completion of this course you will be able to:

• Apply the theory of electromagnetism through Maxwell’s equations, using the tools of vector calculus.

• Explain the unifying connections between seemingly different phenomena in nature such as electromagnetic induction and optics.

• Describe the basic properties of wave propagation, diffraction and interference.

• Explain how electromagnetic fields are generated by accelerating charges.

• Describe the mechanical properties of electromagnetic fields (energy and momentum flux density).
You will also have enhanced your general problem-solving and mathematical skills.

## Timetable

Schedule
For detailed information go to Timetable in Brightspace

In MyTimetable, you can find all course and programme schedules, allowing you to create your personal timetable. Activities for which you have enrolled via MyStudyMap will automatically appear in your timetable.

Questions? Watch the video, read the instructions, or contact the ISSC helpdesk.

Note: Joint Degree students from Leiden/Delft need to combine information from both the Leiden and Delft MyTimetables to see a complete schedule. This video explains how to do it.

## Mode of instruction

The course will be delivered in English by black-board instruction, combined with power-point illustrations. Weekly assignments are offered, in which you are required to apply your mathematical skills and physics understanding to a variety of situations and systems.
See Brightspace

## Assessment method

Written Examination with questions testing the understanding of the study material and the problem solving skills in this field of physics.

The course is based on the book by D.J. Griffiths , Introduction to Electrodynamics (Cabridge university press, fourth edition, ISBN 1108420419), and covers chapters 4, 6, 8 – 11.

Recommended further reading: John David Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), ISBN 9780471309321

## Registration

As a student, you are responsible for enrolling on time through MyStudyMap.

In this short video, you can see step-by-step how to enrol for courses in MyStudyMap.
Extensive information about the operation of MyStudyMap can be found here.

There are two enrolment periods per year:

• Enrolment for the fall opens in July

• Enrolment for the spring opens in December

Note:

• It is mandatory to enrol for all activities of a course that you are going to follow.

• Your enrolment is only complete when you submit your course planning in the ‘Ready for enrolment’ tab by clicking ‘Send’.

• Not being enrolled for an exam/resit means that you are not allowed to participate in the exam/resit.

## Contact

Contactgegevens Docent:Prof.dr. J.M. van Ruitenbeek

## Remarks

Software
Starting from the 2024/2025 academic year, the Faculty of Science will use the software distribution platform Academic Software. Through this platform, you can access the software needed for specific courses in your studies. For some software, your laptop must meet certain system requirements, which will be specified with the software. It is important to install the software before the start of the course. More information about the laptop requirements can be found on the student website.