# Physics Experiments 2

Course
2024-2025

Experimental physics parts 1 and 2. Prior knowledge of Optics, Classical Mechanics, Analysis 3 NA and Physics Experiments 1

## Description

This course builds on the knowledge about signal processing that you gained from Physics Experiments 1 and extends it towards more complex systems that involve positive and negative feedback and various sources of noise. The ultimate goal is to prepare you to independently set up a complex experiment. This will be tested during Physics Experiments 3.

During the course we will analyze various sources of noise and interference and show you how to handle them. Furthermore, we will discuss (positive and negative) feedback, Fourier and Laplace transforms and simple control theory.

To gain both the necessary theoretical background and direct practical experience this course consists of a combination of lectures, exercise classes, and practical work. Python is used in both the exercise classes and the practical work. Because of this structure, you will not only get to know a powerful theory that is applicable to many physical phenomena, but also be able to use that theory in practice.

This course treats the following subjects in a physically relevant context:

• 2D Fourier transform and Fourier optics

• Step and impulse response

• Laplace transform

• Feedback

• Noise

• OpAmp

## Course Objectives

After successful completion of this course you will be able to do the following in both a theoretical as well as experimental context:

• Analyze, build and measure simple electronic circuits containing resistors, capacitors, inductors and OpAmps.

• Analyze linear time-invariant systems in the time domain and in the frequency domain:

• Apply mathematical tools to signals: convolution and various Fourier transforms.
• Perform simple image processing using 2D Fourier transforms.
• Derive, measure and plot impulse response, step response and transfer functions of electronic and mechanical systems.
• Analyze stochastic (random) signals such as noise:

• Using statistical analysis, autocorrelation, the Wiener-Khinchin theorem and noise spectral densities.
• Describe the cause, spectrum, and consequences of various sources of noise and interference and propose solutions to improve signal-to-noise ratio.
• Determine the stability of negative and positive feedback systems:

• Performing the Laplace transform and the BIBO stability criterion.
• Using the Nyquist stability criterion.

### Transferable skills

The following skills will be trained during this course:

• Thinking in a different domain from the time domain.

• Applying theoretical knowledge while performing experiments.

• Attaining new Python skills that you can use again in all other courses.

## Timetable

Schedule
For detailed information go to Timetable in Brightspace

In MyTimetable, you can find all course and programme schedules, allowing you to create your personal timetable. Activities for which you have enrolled via MyStudyMap will automatically appear in your timetable.

Questions? Watch the video, read the instructions, or contact the ISSC helpdesk.

Note: Joint Degree students from Leiden/Delft need to combine information from both the Leiden and Delft MyTimetables to see a complete schedule. This video explains how to do it.

## Mode of instruction

Lab work, lectures (in Dutch), exercises/exam are in English
See Brightspace

## Assessment method

Lab work, assignments/exercises and exam (all in English)

There will be a reader available (English).

## Registration

As a student, you are responsible for enrolling on time through MyStudyMap.

In this short video, you can see step-by-step how to enrol for courses in MyStudyMap.
Extensive information about the operation of MyStudyMap can be found here.

There are two enrolment periods per year:

• Enrolment for the fall opens in July

• Enrolment for the spring opens in December

Note:

• It is mandatory to enrol for all activities of a course that you are going to follow.

• Your enrolment is only complete when you submit your course planning in the ‘Ready for enrolment’ tab by clicking ‘Send’.

• Not being enrolled for an exam/resit means that you are not allowed to participate in the exam/resit.

## Contact

Lecturer for the theoretical part: [Dr.ir. B.J. Hensen)(https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/staffmembers/bas-hensen#tab-1)
Lecturer for the practical part: Dr.ir. Paul Logman

## Remarks

Software
Starting from the 2024/2025 academic year, the Faculty of Science will use the software distribution platform Academic Software. Through this platform, you can access the software needed for specific courses in your studies. For some software, your laptop must meet certain system requirements, which will be specified with the software. It is important to install the software before the start of the course. More information about the laptop requirements can be found on the student website.