The thesis is based on original researchy (probably conducted largely in Japan) and makes substantial use of primary material in Japanese and professional literature. It is writtien in english, and is up to 13,000 words in length, including footnotes and bibliography and reflecting the scholarly virtues of originality, focus and conciseness. Without the supervisor’s approval, no more than one third of the text shall consist of translation. The thesis must show the student’s ability to conduct original research under supervision, and to make a contribution to scholarship in a way that inspires confidence in his/her ability to prepare written reports of good quality. Its author must show that s/he is conversant with the discourse as it emerges from influential publications in the field. It is important that the references are formatted consistently. If the supervisor does not specify otherwise, all dissertations should follow the ‘author-date’system of the Chicago style.