Basic knowledge of the principles of historical linguistics.
Why does Latin actus have a long a, as against a short one in aptus? How were the laryngeals pronounced, and how can we know?
This course treats the main phonological developments between Proto-Indo-European and the different daughter languages, including Indo-European and Balto-Slavic accentuation.
Knowledge of the sound changes between Proto-Indo-European and the daughter languages.
Knowledge of and insight into the following sound changes, among others: Brugmann, Bartholomae, Lachmann, Winter, Grimm, Verner, Kluge, Grassmann, ruki-rule, Sievers, Osthoff.
Insight into the arguments for possible phonetic interpretations of reconstructed PIE phonemes.
Competence in reconstructing proto-forms from given cognates.
Competence in applying the sound changes to a reconstructed form.
Mode of instruction
2-hour weekly seminar
R. Beekes, Comparative Indo-European linguistics: an introduction. Second edition, revised and corrected by M. de Vaan. Benjamins, 2011. (NB: the first edition of this book cannot be used during this course.)
This has to be filled out by the key-user of the department.