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The Internal Market and Regulation


This course is intended to give the students a thorough grounding in the core of the substantive economic law of the European Union as relevant for international business. The main focus is on the provisions in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) on the internal market, i.e. on the so-called ‘four freedoms’ (free movement of goods, persons, services and capital). A second part of the course deals with the integration on the EU level of national laws through secondary meassures (i.e. measures adopted by the EU institutions). This part considers the theory of integration, and in this framework in particular harmonisation, as well as the relationship of EU Treaty law and harmonising secondary law of the EU in the context of a number of selected policy areas of the EU.
One of the main aims of the course is to thoroughly familiarize the students with the Treaty rules on the internal market, in order to prepare for the specialised courses of the second semester on e.g. corporate law and intellectual property law.
Integrated into the course are aspects of the European Law Moot Court (ELMC) competition in which students simulate a case before the CJEU. All students must deal with selected aspects of the ELMC case for the purposes of the Legal Foundations course. At the same time, it is open to students to opt for full participation in the international ELMC competition. With its combination of intense research, written and oral submissions, the ELMC in many ways resembles a Privatissimum, i.e. a class characterized by its particularly intensive teaching method. In past years, this very prestigious international competition has proven to be a particularly important tool for postgraduate instruction.


Europa Institute
Steenschuur 25
2311 ES Leiden
Phone: 071-527 7760
Sheena Bruce,
Phone: +31 (0)71 527 7821

** Lecturer(s): **
Prof. Christa Tobler, Asst. Prof. Jorrit Rijpma, Mr. D. Carter (PhD Researcher) and guest lecturers

Course Objectives:

Objectives of the course:
The objective of this course is to provide students with sufficient knowledge to be able to understand the EU’s core internal market rules on the Treaty level and their relationship with more specific EU measures.

Achievement levels:
The following achievement levels apply with regard to the course:
Knowledge and comprehension: At the end of this course, students will be able to distinguish between different levels economic integration such as a free trade area, a customs union and an internal market; analyse the Treaty rules on the four freedoms; discuss different integration techniques applied by the European Union.
Application: At the end of this course, students will be able to analyse practical cases involving free movement issues under EU law; present CJEU decisions on international market issues and critically discuss them.
Analysis: At the end of this course, students will be motivated to think critically about economic integration on a high level such as that of the EU; argue practical cases relating to such matters.
Presentation: At the end of this course, the students will be able to make oral presentations and write papers on the issues covered.

Mode of Instruction:
Seminars based on the Socratic method, i.e. question and answer model, with active participation of the students.
Assessment Method(s):
25 % written paper (including selected aspects of the European Law Moot Court competition) or, alternatively, full participation in the ELCM competition;
75 % written examination.
Oral participation, including the presentation of CJEU case law in class, is taken into account in order to round a grade where appropriate.

Reading List:

  • The EU Treaty (TEU), the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and selected secondary legislation. It is recommended that students buy the following student text, which includes the text not only of the Treaties but also of the most important secondary EU legislation, much of which we shall be considering in some detail: Nigel G. FOSTER (ed.), Blackstone's EU Treaties & Legislation, edition 2018- 2019.

  • A textbook on EU law. Students may find various textbooks in the Law School library. Nevertheless, we strongly recommend that students buy the following textbook, which is excellent: Paul CRAIG & Grainne DE BURCA: EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials, 6th edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2015. There is an interesting companion website at

  • In addition, the following book will be used in class during teaching: Christa Tobler & Jacques Beglinger, Essential EU Law in Charts, 4th edition, Budapest: HVG-Orac 2018. We recommend that students buy the book together with the text companion to the charts (Essential EU Law in Text(. The text companion to the Charts book may serve as very simple background reading, especially for students who are not yet very familiar with EU internal market law.

Additional reading (CJEU case law etc.) will be indicated in the course reader and in the electronic learning environment, Blackboard.

Course requirements

Master degree


Sheena Bruce,
Phone: +31 (0)71 527 7821


Currently these pages are being updated to reflect the courses for 2018 - 2019. Until these pages are fixed as per 1 September no rights can be claimed from the information which is currently contained within.