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Applied Electrophysiology for Exchange students



The course ‘Applied electrophysiology for exchange students’ is offered in the first semester of year 2 and runs in parallel with the ‘Immunology’ course. It covers cardiac electrophysiology using a clinically oriented, practical approach and can be followed prior to the second year course ‘Physiology, Basic Concepts’ in which electrophysiology is also a theme, but focussing on more basic (sub)cellular processes. Students will focus on understanding how electrophysiological processes in the heart result in a body surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and the interpretation thereof. Students will be able to record an ECG and determine whether the ECG indicates cardiac abnormalities. Students also write a short paper in English on a related electrophysiological subject.

Course objectives

After completing the course, the student will be able to:

  • describe the processes that generate an ECG

  • record an ECG and establish the quality of the recording;

  • distinguish normal from abnormal ECGs;

  • recognise the main cardiac arrhythmias;

  • detect important cardiac pathologies (myocardial infarction, hypertrophy).

Mode of instruction

Lectures, work groups, practicals and presentations.

Assessment method

Assignment (20%) and paper (80%).

Reading list

J.R. Levick. An introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology, o Ch. 3.3 – 3.10 o Ch. 4 o Ch. 5


September - October 2019

Admission requirements

Basic knowledge on cellular processes and interactions.
Course is only open to students that follow the entire exchange module package.


This module focuses on the mechanisms of our immune system which ward off and eliminate microorganisms. A well-functioning immune system can even recognize and eliminate tumor cells. We will go into the basic principles of the development and organization of the immune system, the cellular and humoral interactions involved in immune responses, and the pathogenic effect of defects in the immune system and of autoimmune reactions. Current knowledge of cellular interactions has enabled manipulation of the immune response; allergy patients can now be cured through desensitization therapy, and intervention strategies for the suppression of autoimmune reactivity and immune reaction to transplants are being applied. In addition to the well-known vaccinations against diseases, such as tetanus, diphtheria and whooping-cough, human immunity can be modulated by the infusion of hematopoietic cells that recognize microorganisms. Finally, strategies to boost or stimulate anti-tumor responses will be discussed.

Course objectives

The student will be able to:

  • describe the organization of the immune system and the development of immune functions during life in healthy individuals.

  • explain the intercellular interactions and soluble factors that play a role in the mechanisms of immune reactivity against the various microorganisms.

  • discuss why and how deficiencies, self-reactivity or hyper-reactivity of the immune system can cause distinct disease entities.

  • discuss and critically review the strategies that can be applied to treat patients suffering from diseases with an immunological etiology.

  • discuss and critically review how the immune system can be manipulated to fight infectious diseases and malignancies, and to prevent autoimmune manifestations.

  • explain why transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and solid organs is complicated by reactions of the immune system and how these reactions can be modulated.

  • critically read, present and discuss selected scientific papers in the field of immunology.

  • develop writing and communication skills in English, in particular reporting on debate, building arguments, establishing and substantiating one’s own opinion.

  • learn how to separate main- and side issues (by self-study assignments and questions) during the various workgroups.

  • learn how to distinguish between claims made by the author, one’s own opinions and those of the tutor and other students.

Mode of instruction

Lectures, work groups, practicals, seminars, and presentations.

Assessment method

Written exam and online test for practicum “Anatomy of the Lymphoid system” (pass/no pass and for those following the practicum “Phagocytosis and Complement” a written report (pass/no pass).

Exam dates

The exam dates can be found on the schedule website.

Reading list

P. Parham. The Immune System. 4th ed. (2015)

Information for exchange students

This module is part of an English taught third semester of the bachelor’s programme in Biomedical Sciences at Leiden University Medical Center. Combining biomedical modules with modules from other programmes in Leiden is difficult or impossible due to different scheduling schemes. Exchange students with sufficient relevant background knowledge in biology/biomedicine are therefore encouraged and advised to choose the entire module package indicated (by an *) below.

Immunology (BW), 9 EC*
Infectious Agents And Immunity, 6 EC*
Introduction to the Neurosciences 6, EC*
Design and analysis of Biomedical Studies, 6 EC*

Line education
Communication in Science for Exchange students, 2 EC*

Additional options:
Biomedical Academic Scientific Training for Exchange Students, 2 EC
Applied Electrophysiology for Exchange students, 2 EC

A minimum number of applicants is required for continuation of the optional components.