nl en

Statistical Mediation and Moderation


Entry requirements

  • Open to Master’s and Research Master’s students from Psychology.

  • Course Multivariate Data Analysis at introductory level.


Many psychologists study relationships between constructs. In mediation and moderation analysis, we examine how these relationships occur, and when they occur. For example, the relationship between stress and depression might be moderated by the degree of social support. Topics addressed in this course are mediation and moderation analysis with a continuous and a categorical variable, mediation in longitudinal research, moderator effects between multiple variables, and treatment-subgroup interactions. Both confirmatory as well as exploratory approaches are captured. The emphasis lies on conceptual knowledge and practical skills.

Course objectives

The general goal of this course is to develop insight in the possibilities of mediation and moderation analysis.

After this course the students will be able to:

  • explain the concepts of mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation, and related issues (e.g., mean centering, causal steps approach);

  • choose the appropriate analysis for different research questions involving mediation and/or moderation;

  • perform mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation analysis in SPSS with categorical and/or continuous variables, and

  • interpret the results of such mediation, moderator, and moderated mediation analyses.


For the timetables of your lectures, work groups and exams, please select your study programme in: Psychology timetables




Students need to enroll for lectures and work group sessions. Master’s course registration


Students are not automatically enrolled for an examination. They can register via uSis from 100 to 10 calendar days before the date. Students who are not registered will not be permitted to take the examination.

Mode of instruction

Eight 2-hours (web-)lectures and eight 2-hours work group sessions (several sessions in pc rooms). Attendance to the work group sessions is mandatory.

Assessment method

  • Two take-home assignments;

  • Final written exam including interpretation of practical examples.

Mandatory literature for the exam: Book by Hayes (2018), complementary articles (o.a., Hayes, 2015; Montoya & Hayes, 2016), lecture slides, and solutions to the exercises.

The final grade will be a weighted average of the examination grade (0.70) and the take-home assignments (0.15 each). The examination grade should be 5.0 or higher.

Reading list

  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (2nd Ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

  • Articles on Blackboard.

Contact information

Dr. P. de Heus